Children from poor backgrounds experience a worrying drop off in progress at secondary school, according to new research by the UK’s Social Mobility Commission.
Researchers found that the gap between poor pupils’ attainment at the end of primary school and the end of secondary school has widened. Since 2012, low-income families have been making less progress year on year, compared to their more affluent peers.
Even when bright pupils from low-income families outperform their more advantaged peers at primary school, they are likely to be overtaken at the next stage of their education. The report warns that the secondary school drop-off means that poor children are failing to finish school with the qualifications that will create opportunities for them to succeed in life.
The research, which was conducted by LKMco and Education Datalab using data from the National Pupil Database, finds that most of the gap (88 per cent) in progress stems from differences in achievement between children at the same school, rather than variations between schools (12 per cent).
The report suggests that this is partly due to the treatment of children on free school meals. These children are more likely to be placed in lower sets, have access to less qualified teachers and have lower expectations set for them by the school.
Home life can also have a big impact on progress with children from low-income families less likely to benefit from effective homework routines, access to books and computers, or cultural and sporting experiences.
Outcomes for children from low-income backgrounds are also affected by the fact that they are more at risk of behavioural issues and exclusion from school. The research finds that poor pupils located in cities make more progress relative to their more affluent peers than those in rural areas and that the gap is greatest in large schools with average levels of pupil disadvantage.
It also finds that ethnic minority pupils make better progress at secondary schools than poor white children — partly because some evidence suggests that low-income ethnic minority parents seem to provide support that is more effective for their children at home.
The largest gaps in progress are between poor white children and their more affluent peers. Most low-income ethnic minority groups make progress that is in line with the national average for all pupils.
Head teachers interviewed as part of the research said that lower funding was already putting pupils progress at risk and that the prospects for improvement were bleak despite the new funding formula proposed by the government.
With health and social care funding streams also under pressure, schools are facing reductions in external support for children with mental health disorders or Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) who make the least progress in secondary schools.
Among the reports recommendations are that the teaching of pupils with SEND needs should be prioritised and specialist provision should be easily and promptly accessed where needed, and that additional funding should be made available for schools to buy-in high-quality specialist provision for SEND pupils.
The Rt Hon Alan Milburn, chair of the Social Mobility Commission, said:
One of the shocking features of our education system is that the gap between poor pupils and their better-off peers increases during their time in school rather than reducing.
This new research suggests that the progress poor pupils make in primary school is all but wiped out during secondary. The consequence is that successive generations of poor children are being let down by a school system that is supposed to be there to help them move up and get on.
This is not just an issue for the government. If social mobility is to improve, schools need to do more to bridge the education attainment divide between poorer children and their better-off classmates. Closing the gap needs to be top of mind for every teacher in every school.
The government can help by setting an explicit target for narrowing the attainment gap at CGSE and by doing more to get the best teachers into the toughest secondary schools.
Lead author Bart Shaw, from education think tank LKMco said:
Whilst we should be concerned about the high attaining pupils from low-income families who get overtaken at secondary school, it is at least as important to focus on low and middle-attaining pupils from poorer backgrounds.
These children will continue to achieve poorly at GCSE and have diminished life chances unless more is done to accelerate their progress at secondary school.
Our research has found that teacher expectations and actions taken by schools can have a profound impact on outcomes. Parents also have an important role to play by creating an effective home learning environment and taking an active interest in their children’s education.
The Social Mobility Commission is an advisory, non-departmental public body. It has a duty to assess progress in improving social mobility in the United Kingdom and to promote social mobility in England.